Аграрный вестник Урала № 01 (155) 2017Биология и биотехнологии
EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS OF CULTIVATION OF GRAIN CROPS
In microfield experiments on dark gray forest heavy loamy soil we studied the effect of different food backgrounds onefficiency and effectiveness of the biological fertilizer barley and wheat. Status of mineral nutrition of plants and fertilizerefficiency was evaluated by the following parameters: the degree of consumption by plants elements (rate of consumptionefficiency – CEP); return without saving (agronomic efficiency – AE); consumed plants (physiological efficiency – PV); bioaccumulationfactor – CBN. Wheat yield on mineral background increases by 52 % to 62 %, organo barley – at 45 and 48 %,respectively, compared to the extensive background. Despite the fact that the difference in yields between the mineral grainsand organic background is negligible and is within statistical error, both for barley and wheat, biological indicators of the effectivenessare higher for the organic-food background. Removal of nutrients with the crop is somewhat higher in the embodimentwith mineral and organic fertilizer: nitrogen – 8.3, phosphorus – 3.7, potassium – 4.7 kg, compared with the backgroundmineral nutrition. The magnitude of yield increase compared to control doesn’t always allow to assess the effectiveness offertilizers. Calculation of the biological effectiveness of the use of fertilizers provides more information. When fertilizer barleyphysiological efficiency more on the background of mineral nutrition, and effective absorption coefficient on organomineral.It should be noted that the coefficient accumulation in both biological fertilizer backgrounds virtually identical.
dark-gray forest soil, barley, wheat, food background, product of biological effectiveness.
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