Аграрный вестник Урала № 04 (158) 2017Биология и биотехнологии
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER SYSTEMS ON CHANGES IN AGROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL
Theapplication of various doses of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in a four–fieldgrain–fallow crop rotation was investigated in long-term (45–46 years)experiments on leached chernozem of the experimental field of the Kurgan RIA.With the introduction of minimal tillage, the productivity of rotation of steam-3wheat (VIII–XIrotations) was reduced compared to the period with plowing in the rotation ofsteam-2 wheat-oats (I–VII rotations) per 0.25–0.43 t gU/ha. The return of mineralfertilizers by the addition of grain increased, but with a monophosphorousfertilizer system, it increased in the onset of arid phenomena. Recommendedmoderate doses of fertilizers with long–term use changed the agrochemicalproperties of the soil. The sowing of phosphorus fertilizer P20 over 45 yearspromoted the cultivation of leached chernozem, since it increased the contentof mobile phosphorus per 32–65 mg/kg of soil, which transferred the soil into agroup with the raised and its high content. Minimization of soil cultivationcontributed to its differentiation along the soil profile with accumulationmainly in the upper layer 0–10 cm. The potential acidity of the soil increasedby 0.92–1.04 of the pH value when laying the test, but this happened in thecontrol variant, where fertilizers was not introduced. The physiologicalacidity of fertilizers lowered the pH in salt extract only by 0.09–0.15 in2016. Reduction of the amount of plant residues in VIII–XI rotations led to a decrease inthe humus content relative to the level at the time of laying. The introductionof a nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer stabilized the supply of organic matter tothe soil. The decrease in humus content in the control and in the mononitricsystem is proved.
leached chernozem, long-term experiments, fertilizer effectiveness, available phosphorus, potential acidity, humus content
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