Аграрный вестник Урала № 07 (161) 2017Биология и биотехнологии
VARIETAL RESISTANCE OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT TO LEAF DISEASES IN THE CONDITIONS OF TRANS-URALS
In recent years the epiphytic dangerof distribution of rust on crops of soft wheat brown and stem is observed.Emergence of rust is caused by climate change, migration of new phytopathogens,introduction of the minimum ways of processing of the soil, loss of resistanceof the grades sowed in production to new harmful races. There is a threat ofdistribution of dangerous Ug-99 race from the African continent. Losses of aharvest from damage by diseases can reach more than 30 %. The most economicallyreasonable factor of maintaining stability of collecting grain is creation andintroduction in production of the grades combining high efficiency, droughtresistance with resistance to diseases. The purpose of this research – toestimate selection material from nursery of competitive variety trial againstthe background of epiphytosis of brown and stem rust (2015, 2016) on a naturalbackground to allocate collection samples, steady and tolerant to mushroompathogens, for inclusion in hybridization. In nurseries of initial material thecollection of spring-sown field of domestic and foreign origin in volume of 150grades, a set of grade varieties according to programs is annually studied: theKazakhstan – Siberian network – 50 grade varieties; Ug-99 (Kenya) – 147; BSN(Breeding Shuttle Nursery) – up to 200 hybrid populations which have passedassessment on an artificial infectious background in Mexico (SIMMIT). Thescheme of crossings joins also the best grades. The selection lines of controlnursery susceptible to stem rust (point 4), but forming high productivity from33.0 to 38.2 c/ha are of practical interest. The best of them are received fromcombinations: Apasovka/Zhazira, Chebarkul/Duet, P-66b/Desyatka, Omsk 33/Tuleevskaya,Novosibirsk 15/Faure, etc.
stability, variety, spring soft wheat, leaf rust, stem rust, yield, collection, mass 1000зерен, full-scale mass of grain.
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