Аграрный вестник Урала № 11 (165) 2017Биология и биотехнологии
УДК:635.63 : 631.524
DOMESTIC SELECTION OF HETEROTIC HYBRIDS OF CUCUMBER AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THEIR CULTIVATION IN THE CROP COMBINATION OF GREENHOUSES IN CENTRAL URAL MOUNTAINS
The articlepresents a study on the new heterotic hybrids of cucumber of domestic selectionin the crop combinations of winter greenhouses on Central Ural Mountains. It isestablished that in the conditions of Central Ural Mountains more than 80 % ofthe areas of greenhouses are occupied with cucumber as its cultivation in theopen ground on Central Ural Mountains is complicated by climatic conditions. Agricultureneeds local varieties bred in the conditions of the Urals and adapted for sharpfluctuations of temperature, steady against widespread strains of diseases andwreckers. Increase in production of cucumbers suitable for consumption can bepossible due to expansion of the areas of the protected soil, or due to the developmentof new and more effective technologies. The sharp raising of productivity canbe achieved through introducing new heterotic hybrids which are already developedand annually appearing. According to the results of three-year researches, the cultivationof high-yielding cucmber hybrids in the crop rotations of greenhouses inCentral Ural Mountains allows to receive in a year 100,2–105,2 with kg/sq.m of cucumbersin all months except for three autumn months – September, October, November.This “window” can be overcome by lengthening the spring and summer turns forthe period September-October and earlier beginning since November – autumn ofwinter crop rotation. Economic assessment of cultivation of hybrids of acucumber showed that in a winter and spring crop rotations were allocated thefollowing way: the high-yielding hybrid of F1 Legkoatlet (the Uralselection) provided the highest profit of 580 rub./m2, profitabilityof 97 %; seedless hybrid of F1 Evgenia – with the profit of 200 rub./m2at profitability of 24 %; in spring and summer rotation F1 Evergreenhybrid with the profit of 844 rub./m2, at profitability of 148 %; inautumn and winter rotation – F1 Effect with the profit of 495 rub./m2,with profitability of 100 %.
cucumber, heterotic hybrids, crop rotation, winter greenhouses, productivity, economic efficiency, prime cost, profit, profitability, mellittophilae hybrids, seedless hybrids.
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