Аграрный вестник Урала № 03 (95) 2012Биология и биотехнологии
Embryology of annual species of genus Medicago L., Fabaceae
We investigated embryology of 26 annual species of genus Medicago presented by samples of a various geographical origin. The purpose of research is studying of genetic resources of plants of genus Medicago for use of the received data in selection programs. Constant and time probes which prepared with standard methods, for the analysis of probes the light and luminescent microscopy was used. Research of development and fertility male gametophyte has shown that in development of an anther and pollen grains of annual species any differences from perennial species Medicago wasn't revealed . Fertylity of the pollen grains, studied at 167 collection samples of annual species, has shown that the average index fertylity pollen grains was high and fluctuates from 85 % to 100 %. The distinctive feature annual Medicago is the germination of pollen grains in anthers.The number of ovules in pestyle at investigated annual species Medicago varies from 1 at M. lupulina to 15 at M. orbicularis. The greatest average ovules is registered at M. orbicularis (13,3 ± 0,5) and M.intertexta (9,3 ± 0,5). The collection samples of one species different by origin, don't differ essentially on number ovules in pestyle. In a structure of ovules at annual of a lucerne various individual infringements are revealed. Frequency of their occurrence varies both at different plants of one species, and between species. Similar infringements are available and for perennial species of a lucerne. Process of double fertilisation, development of a germ and endosperm is typical for Fabaceae. At annual species in most cases number of seeds close to number put ovules. Rather-embryology studying of development of reproductive organs at the annual and perennial species, different reproduction systems, hasn't found out essential distinctions in formation and functioning male and female gametophytes. Embriology research has confirmed the doubtless phylogenetic relationship of the investigated species having a genetic basis, and perspectivity of interspecific crossings.
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