Аграрный вестник Урала № 12 (179) 2018Биология и биотехнологии
ANALYSIS OF BREEDING GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS IN COWS OF DIFFERENT AGE
One of the most importantfactors determining the increase in milk production and improving theefficiency of dairy cattle breeding in the country is the acceleration of thepace of improvement of herds. A special place in solving this important problemis given to the Holstein breed. The article presentsthe analysis of the inheritance of the basic features that characterize milkproduction, namely the milk yield for 305 days of lactation, variability andheritability of the main selection characteristics, the dependence of the milkyield of the daughters of heifers on the productivity of mothers, correlativeconnection between characteristics of breeding. The material of the researchwas highly productive Holstein cows in the leading breeding reproducer of theKaluga region. As a result of the research, the authors noted that the highgenetic potential of animals in the herd there is no consolidation of animalsin terms of milk yield. The following results of realization of productivitypotential of these cows were established: 93 heads (or 83,0 %) in the secondlactation increased milk yield in comparison with the first lactation by 400 kgand more of milk; 32 heads (or 42,7 %) in the third lactation reduced milkyield in comparison with the 2nd lactation; only 1 cow, or 1.3 %consistently reduced its yield from lactation to lactation. Thus, from 40 %to 53 % of cows with the 3rd last finished lactation not only did notrealize their potential in the subsequent lactation, but did not even reach theprevious lactation. Animals are not provided with optimal conditions for therealization of the genetic potential of productivity. The main reasons are thelack of selection or culling of animals in terms of milk yield, unbalancedfeeding and poor conditions of animal welfare.
breed, milk production, last complete lactation.
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