Аграрный вестник Урала № 04 (183) 2019Биология и биотехнологии
GREEN AND YELLOW PIGMENTS OF SPRING OATS CULTIVATED FOR HARVESTING CRYOFODDER IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA
Theinfluence of a late sowing date on the pigment content of an autumn vegetativeplant in Central Yakutia (62°15′ N, 129°37′ E) has been studied for the firsttime. The experiments were carried out using spring oat, Avena sativa L., cultivar (cv) Pokrovsky, commonly used in the preparation of cryofodder, the seeds of which were plantedaccording to the optimal (17 June) and late (25 July) sowing dates. It wasestablished that till the endof the first decade of September the content of chlorophylls (15-16 mg/g dry weight) and carotenoids (2,9mg/g dry weight) in theleaves of late sowing plants were higher by 11–13 %compared to control plants at the same phases of growth anddevelopment. Autumn decreasein temperature from the second half of September until the beginning of October (from +7…+8 °C to near-zero) led to a gradual reduction of chlorophylls (a+ b) content by 40 %. The ratio Chl a/Chl b remained almost constant, a significant increase of which wasnoted only at near-zero temperatures due to a greater degradation of Chl b than Chl a. At the same time, carotenoids showed greaterresistance to low temperatures. When green plants in the milk ripeness phase went under snow inOctober, the total carotenoid content was 2,2 mg/g dry weight. The proportion of individual carotenoids inthe total pool of yellow pigments of late sowing plants did not depend onthe phenological phases ofgrowth and development, as well as on seasonal temperature decrease. The share of β-carotene accounted for 26–30 % of the carotenoidssum, xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin make up 39–40 %, violaxanthin ‒ 17–21 %, neoxanthin ‒ 9–10 %, antheraxanthin ‒ 4–5 %. Losses of carotenoids did not exceed 20 % and their ratio remained almost unchanged duringwinter storage of green mass of frozen plants in rolls.
oats, sowing dates, autumn vegetative plants, low temperatures, cryofodder, chlorophylls, carotenoids, xanthophylls.
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