Аграрный вестник Урала № 01 (93) 2012Агрономия
УДК:631.5/9 + 631.452
INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE ON FERTILITY OF SOD-PODZOLIC SOILS AND YIELD OF FIELD CULTURES
In field long-term experiments and in the conditions of two large advanced farms of Udmurtiya value of bean grasses and leguminous cultures, and also straw in increase of fertility and efficiency of soils is proved. In biological crop rotation biological activity of soil increases, the weight of weeds decreases, the stock of a productive moisture in the layer of 0–70cm increases. In this connection efficiency of crop rotation has increased on the average on 0,19 t of grain/hectares per year with decrease in economic and power expenses. In long-term experience the role of clover in increasing the efficiency of soil was studied. Thanks to powerful root system of a clover without application of fertilizers productivity in connection with use of stocks of elements of a food from subsurface horizons has increased. Before cultivation of a clover efficiency on a control variant made 38 % in relation to the best variants, efficiency of a clover has made 72 %, and in afteraction on other cultures — 66 %. Average efficiency of cultures after clover cultivation has increased for 0,68 t of grain/hectares.In experimental farm «Farm by Michurin» in structure of areas under crops long-term grasses occupy 40 %. Now straw application makes to 6000 т annually. Since 1990 the saturation organic fertilizers does not fall below 10 t/hectares of an arable land. For these years the positive balance of humus is received. In this connection in 1991–1995 productivity of grain cultures made 2,38 t/hectares, in 2010 — 3,11 t/hectares, in 2011 — 4,0 t/hectares.Similar law of influence of biological factors on the maintenance, balance of humus and productivity of field cultures was observed in experimental farm «July». In field experiences of this farm high efficiency of biological product «Rizoagrin» on spring wheat is proved. On positive influence on size of productivity of grain and its quality biological product action is equated to entering N40Р40К40 kg /hectares.
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