Аграрный вестник Урала № 02 (108) 2013Агрономия
The influence of crop rotation on the phosphorus mode of leached chernozem in the forest steppe zone of Zauralye
Black soils of a forest steppe zone of Zauralye in its natural variety are characterized by very low provision with phosphorus available to plants that does not give the chance to increase productivity of agricultural crops. Increase of efficiency of an arable land is possible only at obligatory use of phosphoric fertilizers that in modern conditions is economically unprofitable for a commodity producer. The scientifically founded approach at selection of cultures of the crop rotations is necessary for the solution of the given problem, allowing to use of phosphates with varying degrees of availability to plants. The purpose of researches was to study the influence of widespread crop rotations in Western Siberia on the phosphorus mode of leached chernozem It was established, that presence of early fallow in a crop rotation provides with phosphorus available to plants only the first crop, following it. The subsequent grain crops require application of phosphorus fertilizers in doses of 50 kg of active ingredient per hectare. The perennial legumes grasses that are part of grain and grass crop rotation absorb sparingly soluble phosphates, stabilizing a phosphorus mode of leached chernozem. The use of peas-oats mixes in crop rotations has negative impact on provision of spring wheat with mobile phosphorus in grain and grass crop rotation with full fallow. For obtaining 4.0 t/ha of grain it is necessary to use phosphoric fertilizers in dose 60 kg/ha. Grass crop rotation stabilizes the phosphorus mode of leached chernozem, phosphate accumulation occurs only after two years of growth. Up to 36 kg of phosphorus available to plants accumulates for 4 years in the given crop rotation.
forest steppe zone of Zauralye, leached chernozem, crop rotation, phosphorus mode, annual and perennial grasses, spring wheat, full fallow
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