Аграрный вестник Урала № 02 (108) 2013Животноводство
The problems of livestock selection in Yakutia
This article shows the ways to create zonal type of cattle in Yakutia. The parameters of milk producing ability (milk yield, percentage of fat and protein) and live weight on the basis of the existing total number of cattle are identified. An important condition for the creation of these parameters is the improvement of feeding and increase of nutritional value of the dairy herd diet. The direction (methods) of selection and breeding work on nurture of the desired zonal type of livestock is developed. The authors consider a very important transition from experience of cows’ insemination with sperm of imported purebred bulls to use semen of local purebred and mixed bred cattle of fourth generation. The article also shows the principles of breeding selection and growth of herd replacements at nurture of the zonal type of livestock. Selection of cows should be not only one-side for main characteristic, but the other important features should be considered such as the exterior, the constitution and the reproductive ability. The homogeneous and heterogeneous selection have an extra value in stock breeding, because desired serviceability features are accumulated and fixed at each change of generations by means of selection. The economic efficiency of keeping of the desired zonal type of dairy cows with milk yield of 3000 kg of milk for the economic year is calculated. The profitability of milk production increased to 23.3 % at this level of milk production. This approach to the problem, of course, will accelerate the formation of local cattle with a specific type, productivity and adaptive qualities.
cattle, desirable type, servicing bull, quality offspring quality, selection, homogeneous breeding, heterogeneous breeding
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