Аграрный вестник Урала № 09 (115) 2013Животноводство
THE MODERN CONDITION AND PROBLEMS THE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CATTLE BREEDING IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Cattle breeding is a traditional Russian sector of animal. In the transition to a market conditions made it, in comparison to other livestock sectors, suffered particularly heavy losses due to the specifics of the industry. Thus, over the period from 1990 to 2011 in cattle decreased from 57.0 to 20.1 million heads (2.8 times), including cows — from 20.5 to 8.9 million heads (2.3 times), and milk production decreased from 55.7 to 31.7 million tons (1.8 times). Was almost entirely eliminated specialized beef cattle. For the period up to 2001 everywhere abandoned complex industrial complexes and specialized farms production of milk and beef. Due to the sharp decline in domestic agricultural production significantly reduced the volume of production equipment for the mechanization of farms. Currently available renewal of machines is not more than 2 % instead of 11–13 % according to the standards. This led to the fact that over 80 % of vehicles used on farms in excess of depreciation useful life and the cost of maintaining it in working condition up to 10 % of the cost of production. Currently, a significant portion of the new technology for animal comes by foreign firms, the cost of acquisition and which, in particular, spare parts, are 2–3 times higher than the cost counterparts. Integrated mechanization level of cattle farms decreased by 22–28 % in comparison with the pre-reform period. Economic activity analysis of the branch of stockbreeding in the Russian Federation showed that its development is at a low technological level. For the industry conversation to the innovation development way requires a comprehensive solution of the technical, technological and organizational problems.
dairy cattle breeding, technological development, modern state, problems and solutions
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