Аграрный вестник Урала № 01 (119) 2014Агрономия
BIOGENIC REMOVAL OF NUTRIENTS OF WHEATEN AGROPHYTOCENOSIS IN THE FOREST-STEPPE ZONE OF THE URALS
Weeds possess a very high ecological plasticity and are capable to survive practically in any conditions. With the launch of the newest plant protectors, the problem of a contamination has not been eliminated. Refusal of crop rotations and transition to mineral system of fertilizers demand a special approach to cultivation of grain crops and to a choice of protection system for plants. It is necessary to remember that the weed component in fitocenosis is capable to consume more water and nutrients than cultural plants. For drawing up a balance of nutrients in “soil-fitocenosis” system it is necessary to know biogenic removal of NPK by weed vegetation. As a result of researches it has been established, that in a forest-steppe zone of the Urals the removal of food elements on a low agrobackground makes: nitrogen and potassium — 0.8; phosphorus — 0.3 kg/hectares. Application of mineral fertilizers increases consumption of nutrients by weeds by 8–10 times. So big losses are caused not only by air-dry weight of weeds increase from 7.8 to 43.2 g/m2, but also by a change of the content of nutrients in their overground weight by 1.5–2.0 times when mineral fertilizers are applied. The application of mineral fertilizers on the planned yield of spring wheat up to 4.0 t/ha of grain does not increase the debris. Specific weight of weeds does not exceed 1.5 % of agrophytocenosis. Further increase of mineral nutrition leads to increase up to 2.9 %. Adding increasing doses of fertilizers increases the nitrogen content of the dominant weeds of wheat phytocenosis from 0.70 to 1.07 %, phosphorus — from 0.53 to 0.85 %. The potassium content is less dependent on the level of mineral nutrition, on the fertilized variants this figure varies from 0.61 to 0.72 %.
mineral fertilizers, spring wheat, agrophytocenosis, weeds, biogenic removal
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