Agrarian
Bulletin
of the Urals

Russian Journal of Agricultural Research

The publication is registered by the Ministry of the Russian Federation
for Affairs of the Press, Television and Radio Broadcasting and Mass Communication Media.
Registration certificate: PI number 77-12831 on May 31, 2002
Subscription index in catalog «Russian Press» - 16356
ISSN 1997 - 4868 (Print)

The Journal is included in the list of the leading peer-reviewed scientific journals and publications, which should be published by the main results of theses for the degree of doctor and Ph.D.
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Journal is included in the list of VAK (from 25.09.2017), No. 291

ISSN 2307-0005 (Online)
Key title: Agrarnyj vestnik Urala (Online)
Abbreviated key title: Agrar. vestn. Urala (Online)

Аграрный вестник Урала № 03 (121) 2014

Инженерия

Минухин Л. А. доктор технических наук, профессор Уральский государственный аграрный университет

Тимкин В. А. кандидат технических наук, доцент Уральский государственный аграрный университет

Лазарев В. А. аспирант Уральский государственный аграрный университет

УДК:664.97;66.081.63

DETERMINATION OF THE OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF WHEY

The article gives a definition of the osmotic pressure of whey. It describes the current challenges of the dairy industry, in particular, the problem of whey disposal, produced in large amounts in the processing of milk in the production of curd and cheese. Whey value, the main ways of its processing, its advantages and disadvantages are shown. The main baromembrane technologies are considered as the most preferred for raw milk processing: microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. The main advantages of the baromembrane processes are shown: retention of nutrients in the native state, low energy costs, the possibility of separating solutions with a complex composition. The urgency of the problem of determining the osmotic pressure of whey is noted as a critical parameter that determines the efficiency of the membrane separation of solutions with a complex composition. Since the calculation of the driving force of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration processes depends on the osmotic pressure, the value of this parameter is decisive in the development of a membrane equipment. The article suggests the author’s solution to the problem of determining the osmotic pressure of solutions with a complex composition. The connection is shown between the osmotic pressure of whey with a conеnt in it of dissolved substances — lactose and salt ions. A laboratory device has been developed for studying the process of reverse osmosis. The article justifies the necessity of preconditioning the whey in the pilot device using a ceramic ultrafiltration membrane elements which can effectively isolate protein and fat fractions from the initial whey, the presence of which significantly reduces the permeability of the reverse osmosis membrane by forming a gel layer on its surface. Experiments have been carried out with curd and cheese whey by a dynamic method using a reverse osmosis acetate cellulose membrane with an asymmetric structure. The characteristics of the initial and final products are given after ultrafiltration. Based on the experimental data the dependence of whey osmotic pressure on concentration of dry dissolved substances is plotted. The discussions of the results is given.

Keywords:

whey, membrane technology, reverse osmosis, osmotic pressure, ceramic membrane, polymeric membrane


References:

1. Hramtsov A. G., Nesterenko P. G. Waste-free processing of raw milk. M. : KolosS, 2008.

2. Timkin V. A., Minukhin L. A., Galchak I. P., Lazarev V. A. The development of baromembrane technology for milk whey processing // Agrarian Bulletin of the Urals. 2013. № 7 (113).

3. Timkin V. A., Lazarev V. A., Minukhin L. A. Pressure-membrane whey processing technology as a factor of regional food security // News of the Ural State University of Economics. 2013. № 3–4 (47–48).

4. Minukhin L. A., Timkin V. A. Determination of the osmotic pressure of fruit and vegetable juices. // Storage and Processing of Farm Products. 1997. № 3.

5. Dytnersky Yu. I. Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. М. : Himiya, 1978.

6. Timkin V. A. Effect of hydrodynamic conditions in reverse osmosis concentration of fruit and vegetable juices // Storage and Processing of Farm Products. 2000. № 6.


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