Аграрный вестник Урала № 06 (124) 2014Агрономия
WINTER WHEAT IN THE URALS REGION
The important reserve of increase of grain production in the Urals region can serve as winter wheat, the advantage of which is the high potential productivity, early maturing. The instability of the harvest in years caused both biotic and abiotic factors, which can withstand adherence to recommended treatment technology, balanced mineral nutrition, the system of chemical crop protection, introduction of winter-resistant and frost-resistant varieties. In competitive testing in the Kurgan Research Institute of Agriculture winter wheat yield for 29 years has averaged 23 cwt/ha. Fluctuations in the years ranged from 5.7 kg/ha up to 63.1 kg/ha. On spring wheat during this period the yield ranged from 7.3 to 38.8 cwt/ha yield increase compared to the spring has averaged 4.0 cwt/ha. Over the last 10 years, the yield of winter wheat four times amounted to 31.5–36.5 cwt/ha, exceeding the spring 6.5–14.7 cwt per hectare, the most significant increase compared to the standard (from 3.6 to 6.0 kg/ha) showed varieties Umka, Zauralskaya winter and others. The quality of winter wheat depends on the environmental conditions during the emergence of grains. During the research period, there were considerable fluctuations indicators of the gluten’s quality of the wheat in most years correspond to second quality’s group. On sets of indicators, stable crop yields and grain quality have wintering highly resistant varieties Albina 45, Umka, Zauralskaya winter showed good results in a competitive and environmental strain testing in different points of the Ural region, with a po- tential yield from 30 to 50 t/ha, significantly exceeding the standards. To further increase the area planted winter wheat will contribute to introduction in manufacture of high-yielding varieties, combine adaptability to the conditions of wintering with other economically valuable traits, and also observance of the recommended technologies and systems for initial seed.
winter wheat, winter hardiness, yield, quality, resistance to diseases, cultivation technology
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