Agrarian
Bulletin
of the Urals

Russian Journal of Agricultural Research

The publication is registered by the Ministry of the Russian Federation
for Affairs of the Press, Television and Radio Broadcasting and Mass Communication Media.
Registration certificate: PI number 77-12831 on May 31, 2002
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ISSN 1997 - 4868 (Print)

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Journal is included in the list of VAK (from 25.09.2017), No. 291

ISSN 2307-0005 (Online)
Key title: Agrarnyj vestnik Urala (Online)
Abbreviated key title: Agrar. vestn. Urala (Online)

Аграрный вестник Урала № 08 (126) 2014

Агрономия

Немченко В. В. Доктор сельскохозяйственных наук, профессор, главный научный сотрудник

Кекало А. Ю. кандидат сельскохозяйственных наук, ведущий научный сотрудник Курганский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства

Заргарян Н.Ю. кандидат сельскохозяйственных наук, старший научный сотрудник Курганский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства

Цыпышева М.Ю. научный сотрудник Курганский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства

Вьюник М.В. младший научный сотрудник Курганский научно-исследовательский институт сельского хозяйства

УДК:633.1:632

OPTIMIZATION OF THE PHYTOSANITARY SITUATION OF CROPS IN TRANS-URAL REGION

Treatment of crops drugs fungicidal and insecticidal action is a method of rapid response to the negative change in the phytosanitary situation and the agro-ecosystem. Their use should be economically and environmentally justified. The choice of means to protect crops from diseases and pests should be implemented based on the results of monitoring observations by the time of the appearance of diseases, their species composition. We should also consider the planned yield and weather conditions of vegetation. Conducted field experiments have shown that in the Kurgan region on spring wheat at high severity the disease considerable economic and biological efficacy observed in the use of fungicides Falcon and Phytosporin-M. At faint foliar disease development a prolonged action of seed dressers was pointed out (28–42 %). In the years of epiphytotics of foliar diseases, with yields of wheat near to 20 dt/ha, economically justified level of stored yield due to the use of fungicides made up 4.5–5 dt/ha; the use of biological fungicides — 1.5–3 dt/ha; seed dressers — 2.5–3 dt/ha. During years of moderate incidence of wheat leaves when the grain productivity is about 30 dt/ha, the level of economically justified yield increases are: from seed dressers — 4 dt/ha; biological fungicides — 3 dt/ha; fungicides — 7 dt/ha. In the years of depressive development of the diseases the application of fungicides on wheat is not economically justified. Systemic seed dressers and biological fungicides helped to save 3–9 % of yield. Growth regulators under stress environment influenced on wheat positively and increased the yield by 4–6 %. Insecticides seed treatment reduced the number of pests on 73–90 %, the spraying of crops — only 18–40 %. Saved harvest amounted to 2.7–3.9 and 1.7–3.4 dt/ha. Efficiency on barley was higher than the wheat because of different population crop pests. It is shown that the greater the intensity of the phytosanitary situation, the higher biological and economic efficiency of protective measures.

Keywords:

insecticides, fungicides, spring wheat, barley, disease, pests, biological efficiency, productivity


References:

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