Аграрный вестник Урала № 01 (131) 2015Экология
MODERN METHODS OF UTILIZATION OF MANURE CONTAINING DRAINS AND SEWAGE
The literary review of ways, methods, and technologies of utilization the manure containing drains and sewage of the live- stock enterprises is submitted. Ecological value of waste pig-breeding and cattle of farms for environment, the soil, a ground and surface water is shown. Material on self-cleaning of sewage with use of the agricultural fields of an irrigation (AFI) is analyzed. It is shown that, sewage treatment by means of ZPO can be effective at observance of the irrigation norms of sew- age used at irrigation, and it isn’t higher that 800 m3/hectare. This norm has no negative impact on a soil biocenosis, during 3 months thanks to self-cleaning ability of the soil there is a utilization of components of sewage. It is noted that when watering 1600–2400 m3 /hectare process of self-cleaning won’t end for the vegetative period. Hygienic and soil water protective func- tion of fields of irrigation can be insufficiently effective without preliminary preparation of sewage by the time of irrigation. At approbation of an irrigation of meadows and pastures sewage revealed long preservation (in three weeks after an irrigation) in 84 % of tests of soils and plants of the causative agent of salmonellosis. The activator of an ugly face of pigs is found on a grass in some months after irrigation. For neutralization the manure containing drains and sewage is used a thermal method process- ing of a liquid phase of manure under pressure at a temperature of 130 °C within 7 minutes sporous microorganisms perish. By perspective methods of disinfecting of pork manure authors consider influence as ionizing radiation and an electrowater hammer. As effective and not demanding big material inputs the author considers biological ponds, especially fish-breeding and biological, having a number of advantages before aerotenka, but demanding high qualification of the service personnel. Practical interest is presented by information on environmental protection in Canada, Sweden, the USA, to feature of standards and systems of recycling of the livestock enterprises.
monitoring, utilization, biological method of disinfecting, biological ponds, fish-breeding and biological ponds, manure containing drains, ground waters, bacterial self-cleaning
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