Аграрный вестник Урала № 08 (138) 2015Агрономия
THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SPRING WHEAT DEPENDING ON THE BACKGROUND OF MINERAL NUTRITION AND PREDECESSOR IN CONDITIONS OF FOREST-STEPPE OF THE URAL
The article reflects the results of a study of seed production, energy efficiency of cultivation of new varieties of spring soft named Ecatherina, included into State register of breeding achievements with 2015 on the Volga-Vyatka and West-Siberian regions of the Russian Federation, in comparison with Iren and Gornouralskаyа. A reaction is studied on the background of mineral nutrition (unfertilized and N60P60K60) and predecessor (winter rye and clover) in a stationary grain-fallow-grass crop rotation, the past five rotations with the following alternation of crops: bare fallow, winter rye, spring wheat and undersown clover, clover the I year of use, clover II year of use, pea-oat mixture on herbage, barley, oats during favourable 2014 and less favorable 2013. Maximum value from mineral fertilizers was observed in variety Ecatherina – 1.39 t/ha, or 70.9 % (winter rye), and 1.06 t/ha, or 36.8 % (clover). Other varieties are amounted to 0.99–1.06 t/ha and 0.74–0.82 t/ha respectively. Increase from its predecessor clover is higher than winter rye and equal to depending on grade of the background on 0.60–0.96 t/ha, with fertilizer dose N60P60K60 on 0.42–0.64t/ha. Clover has improved the energy efficiency of spring wheat, compared to the predecessor of winter rye was an increase in net energy revenue for all sorts in the background without fertilizer of 6.3 to 13.5 GJ/ha and on the background N60P60K60 – 3.5–6.7 GJ/ha, a decline in the energy intensity on 1.7–3.8 GJ/ha and on 0.7–1.2 GJ/ha, the increase of energy efficiency ratio on 14.9–40.0 % (unfertilized background) and on 3.2–9.8 % (N60P60K60). Мid-early variety Ekaterina generated the highest yield of all the predecessors and the backgrounds of mineral nutrition in excess of Iren and Gornouralskаyа by all indicators of energy efficiency in the cultivation in the conditions of forest-steppe of the Ural.
spring wheat, variety, productivity, predecessor, doze of fertilizers, energy efficiency
1. Adaptive agriculture in the Middle Urals. State, problems and solutions. Ekaterinburg, 2010. 338 p.
2. Volynkina O. V. Potential of a grade and its realization // Scientific heritage of the honorary academician T. S. Maltsev and his realization in agriculture practice. Kurgan : GIPP «Zauralie», 2001. P. 96–98.
3. Vorobyov V. A. Status and prospects of cultivation of spring wheat in the Sverdlovsk region // Scientific support of the national project of agrobusiness development of the Tyumen region: status and prospects : sat. scientific works of the Intern. scientific and practical conf. Tyumen, 2009. P. 195–199.
4. Vorobyov V. A., Komelskih N. P., Malenkov R. Z. Reaction varieties of spring wheat on the soil and fertilizers in the forest-steppe zone Urals // Strategy of development of fodder production in the global climate changes and the use of achievements of the national selection. Ekaterinburg : AMB, 2011. P. 55–57.
5. Dospekhov B. A. Methods of field experience. 5th ed. revised. and add. M. : Agropromizdat, 1985. 351 p.
6. Zhuchenko A. A. The resource potential of grain production in Russia. M. : Agrorus, 2004. 1109 p.
7. Moiseenko A. A., Negoda L. A., Ustimenko O. P. Bioenergy assessment cultivation of crops // Agriculture. 2004. № 5. P. 24.
8. Nikiforova E. L., Romanova I. N. Influence of predecessors, soils and fertilizers on a crop and quality of grain of a spring-sown field // Proceed. of Ural Research Institute for Agriculture. Sverdlovsk, 1976. T. 16. P. 46–49.
9. Ogorodnikov L. P., Kurbala A. A. Perfecting of elements of technology of cultivation of a spring-sown field Krasnoufimskaya 100 // Achieving the Urals agricultural science to agriculture : sat. of scientific works, dedicated to 50th anniversary of the Urals Research Institute of Agriculture. Ekaterinburg, 2006. Vol. 61. P. 229–237.
10. Titkov V. M., Baykasenov R. K. Economic and power efficiency of cultivation a spring-sown field in the conditions of the Orenburg Cis-Urals and Trans-Urals // News of the Orenburg GAU. 2014. № 5 (49). P. 34–36.
11. Chesnokov N. A., Danko N. M. Energy efficiency technologies in crop production unit of grain-grass crop rotation // Proceed. of Urals Research Institute of Agriculture. Breeding, seed production and technologies of cultivation of major crops in the Middle Urals. Ekaterinburg, 2000. T. 59. Р. 183–187.
Download article as PDF: