Аграрный вестник Урала № 08 (138) 2015Агрономия
PRODUCTIVITY, GROWTH DYNAMICS AND THE SYMBIOTIC ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BEAN UNDER URALS DEPENDING ON THE SOWING TERMS
Common bean has great potential for cultivation in Russia. For wide dissemination of this crop the optimization of agronomic techniques and a set of adaptive varieties are needed. Due to the global warming in the last 10 years, the goal was set to assess the dynamics of the production process of bean plants at planting in late May as compared to the recommended earlier period ‒ the first decade of June. Small plot field experiments were conducted in Urals (Iglinsky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan) with three varieties of common bean (Ufimskaja, Zolotistaja, Elsa) on grey forest soil in 2014. The 1st sowing date of all 3 varieties resulted in 1–10 % increase of germination, 1.7–2 times increase of plants biomass, 13–18 % increase of plant height of common bean varieties in compare with the 2d period, in which there were a delay of maturation. Total noduleforming activity of plants in 2d sowing dates changed slightly and was an average 102 nodules per a plant of Ufimskaja variety, 72 nodules of Zolotistaja and 69 nodules of Elsa variety. At different sowing date Ufimskaja variety ensured the stability seed production 12 and 15 g/plant, Zolotistaja variety proved vulnerable to the action of the phytopathogen and formed the seed weight of 5.8 and 8.1 g/plant, Elsa variety characterized by the highest productivity in the 1st sowing date – 18 g/plant, but it in 2 times decreased in the 2d sowing date. Thus, it is recommended: under Ural conditions the sowing date of bean must be moved from the 1st decade of June to the 3rd decade of May; tо use Elsa variety for the intensive farming systems and Ufimskaja variety to the adaptive farming systems.
beans, productivity, sowing, germination, growth dynamics, the structure of the crop, nodules
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