Аграрный вестник Урала № 11 (141) 2015Агрономия
THE INFLUENCE OF THE TIME OF TERMINATION OF AUTUMN VEGETATION AND THE RENEWAL OF SPRING VEGETATION ON THE YIELD OF HARD WINTER WHEAT
The time of the termination of the autumn vegetation, overwintering conditions and the period of the renewal of spring vegetation are important factors for the formation of the winter wheat crop. Field experiments were carried out in 1979–2014, on the experimental field of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Grain Crops of I. G. Kalinenko. The soil of the plot – ordinary black calcareous loamy powerful, with significant porosity, aeration, gas exchange, permeability and moisture content. Field experiments conducted by the method of B. A. Dospekhov (1985). The technology of crops corresponded with the zonal farming systems of the southern zone of the Rostov region. To characterize agro-climatic indicators in the southern zone of the Rostov region used data from the weather station of Zernograd. Studies have shown that hard winter wheat generates greater yield with long autumn vegetation of predecessors peas (4.70 t/ha) and black pairs (5.55 t/ha) than with short – 4.37 and 4.65 t/ha respectively. Average annual date of the termination of the autumn vegetation in the southern zone of the Rostov region falls on November 8, and the mean annual period of the renewal of spring vegetation on March 23. Hard winter wheat generates more yield, if there is an early arrival of spring (on the peas – to 5.62 t/ha; on the black pair – 5.58 t/ha) than late (peas – 3.84 t/ha; on a black pair – 4.91 t/ha). Over the last 35 years (1980–2014) a temperature rise in the dormant period of winter wheat, which is increasing annually 0.93 ºC observed. As a result there are favorable conditions for overwintering of hard winter wheat, and risk of its cultivation in agricultural production reduced.
hard winter wheat, the termination of autumn vegetation, temperature, the renewal of spring vegetation.
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