Аграрный вестник Урала № 12 (142) 2015Агрономия
STATE AND TASKS OF HARD WINTER WHEAT BREEDING UNDER CHANGING OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
A necessity to study hard winter wheat breeding substantiated. The study results for half a century have been given, when 24 varieties were selected, 15 of which were zoned and included into the State register. At present ten varieties (Donchanka, Zhemchuzhina Dona, Gelios, Aksinit, Kurant, Amazonka, Agat donskoy, Kristella, Lazurit and Onoks) are approved by the patents; five varieties (Kiprida, Diona, Teyya, Eyrena and Yakhont) are being studied at the State variety testing. The article presents characteristics of the present market varieties on their economic-biological traits and properties. Genetic potential of their productivity is 8–9 t/ha, but it can be received only in favorable conditions of cultivation, and it reduces on 20 % in unpredictable stress climatic conditions. We have determined the tasks of hard winter wheat breeding, which are to be solved in the nearest future because of changing climate, global warming and aridity increase. They are improvement of winter tolerance; stability to lodging and diseases; reduce of vegetation period; improvement of grain, groats and pasta quality. The condition of the varieties on these essential traits and properties analyzed. Main methods of future work have been considered, where it is need to use mutagenesis of marker selection, genetic engineering and biotechnical methods along with transgressive and introgressive selection. In particular, it is necessary: intraspecific remote hybridization in ecological and geographical varieties and forms as well as sorts and samples of one environmental type, but contrasting on economic and biological characteristics and properties; interspecific hybridization of winter and spring varieties of hard wheat with soft winter; intergeneric – with rye and triticale.
breeding, variety, productivity, stability, hard winter wheat, quality.
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